Nanocellulose in Paper and Board

This e-book examines the latest progress in nanocellulose for use in paper and board.

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Product type: Books
Product format: Online
Nanocellulose in Paper and Board

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Nanocellulose in Paper and Board provides information on structure and properties, raw materials, production and characterization methods, surface treatment, and applications in paper, board and high-strength composites.

Cellulose has great potential as a nanomaterial as it's abundant, renewable and biodegradable. It can be used in paper for its superior strength properties and can also be used as a wet-end additive to enhance retention in coating and packaging applications. Nanocellulose can form transparent films with excellent barrier properties, allowing it to be competitive with petroleum-based plastics in food packaging. Due to its reinforcing properties, nanocellulose can also be used in bio-composites and other matrix materials.


Executive Summary

Introduction and methodology

  • Introduction
  • Objective
  • Methodology
  • Glossary
  • Abbreviations

Developments in Nanocellulose

  • Overview
  • Structure of Cellulose
  • Dimensions of Nanocellulose
  • Structure and Properties of Nanocellulose
  • Drivers for Development
  • Commercialization Opportunities
  • Commercialization Barriers

Raw Materials and Production Processes

  • Sources of Nanocellulose
  • Wood
  • Agricultural Crops and By-products
  • Bacterial Cellulose
  • Animal Cellulose
  • Production of Nanocellulose
  • Chemical Delignification
  • Refining and High-pressure Homogenization
  • Cryocrushing
  • Grinding
  • Pretreatment
  • Chemicals
  • Enzymes
  • Preparation and Properties of Microfibrillated Cellulose Films
  • Characterization Methods
  • Nanoindentation Techniques
  • Microscopy Characterization
  • X-ray Diffractometry
  • Tensile Tests
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Transparency Measurements
  • Thermomechanical Analysis
  • Rheological Behavior of Suspensions
  • Surface Modification to Improve Properties
  • Carboxylation
  • Grafting
  • Acetylation/alkylation
  • Silylation
  • Surfactants
  • Treatment with polyelectrolytes


  • Paper and Board
  • Improved Properties and New Paper Grades
  • Coating Applications
  • Surface Strength Agent to Reduce Linting
  • Packaging Material
  • High-Strength Biocomposites
  • Patents on the Use of Nanocellulose as Reinforcement in Composites

Future Trends


Tables and Figures

  • Production of MFC at ITT
  • Innventia nanocellulose generation 1 and 2
  • Chemical structure of cellulose
  • CryoTEM-imaging of Innventia nanocellulose generation 2
  • Production method of nanocellulose generation 1
  • Production method of nanocellulose generation 2
  • Tensile strength comparison between standard paper and paper incorporating 20% NanoCell (MPa)
  • Effect of MFC content (mg/g dry pulp) on tensile index (Nm/g) showing linear trendline and correlation
  • Effect of MFC content on paper strength showing linear trendline and correlation
  • Transparent paper compared with typical paper
  • SEM images of a) freeze-dried and b) oven-dried nanofiber sheets
  • Comparison of Young's Modulus among starch/glycerol/nanocellulose biocomposite with various commercial polymers (GPa)
  • Comparison of strength at yield among starch/glycerol/nanocellulose biocomposite with various commercial polymers (MPa)
  • Use of nanocellulose in increasing tensile strength (MPa)
  • Specific advantages of nanocelluloses
  • Dimensions of nanocellulose
  • Methods for characterization of nanocelluloses
  • Comparison of nanocellulose films with various materials
  • Energy Consumption in the production of Innventia nanocellulose
  • Properties of different types of nanocellulose
  • Mechanical properties of microfibrillated cellulose films prepared from different raw materials
  • Effect of MFC content on paper tensile index
  • Effect of MFC content on paper strength
  • Mechanical properties of MFC films prepared with different DPs
  • Mechanical properties of MFC films of different porosities
  • Oxygen permeabilities of MFC film and synthetic polymers and cellophane
  • Oxygen transmission rate for pure and acetylated MFC films