Metal Packaging 2nd Edition

Study reviewing the materials, manufacturing, packing and QA of metal packaging, alongside the economic, legislative and safety issues.

Product detail
Product type: Books
Date of publication: 30 Nov 2010
Product format: Hard Copy
Number of pages: 266

This second edition of Metal Packaging from Smithers Pira gives you the most up-to-date information you need on metal packaging developments and state of the art manufacturing processes. With analysis of key market drivers, threats and opportunities, and a thorough overview of the latest technology innovations, this book provides you with a comprehensive, invaluable guide to the metal packaging industry.



  • Range of light metal packaging products, their performance properties and their markets
  • The metal packaging supply chain, with profiles of major suppliers and customers
  • Drivers in light metal package development, such as influence of company size, role of retailers and consumer organisations, role of research organisations, role of materials and machinery suppliers
  • Manufacturing and finishing processes for metal packaging, containers, lids, ends and closures
  • Protecting and decorating metal packaging, and storage and transport of finished packages
  • Environmental, legislative and health and safety issues, as well as hygiene and food contact issues and quality assurance methods
  • Threats to and opportunities for the light metal packaging industry


  • Definitive overview of the metal packaging industry, from manufacturing, to finishing and storage, quality assurance, food contact and health and safety
  • Over 80 exclusive illustrations, tables and figures to help you really understand metal packaging technical issues and processes
  • An in-depth understanding of the key drivers shaping the metal packaging market, as well as the threats and opportunities for the light metal packaging industry


  • Get to grips with a range of manufacturing processes for various light metal packaging products
  • Keep abreast of the latest technology developments
  • Understand marketing trends and identify factors driving change
  • Get the complete picture of the shape of the metal packaging industry


  • Packaging converters
  • Machinery and equipment manufacturers/suppliers
  • Raw material suppliers
  • Brand owners
  • Consultants and analysts



  • Range of light metal packaging products
  • Markets for light metal packaging
    • World markets for light metal packaging
  • Competitive materials and products
  • The special properties of metal for packaging
  • Organisation of the light metal packaging industry

Types of metal containers, markets served and package/ service performance requirments

  • Types of metal containers and closures in common use
  • Market sectors served
    • Performance requirements common to all metal packages
    • Protection and preservation of the contained product for stated shelf life
    • Physical resistance to handling and filling
    • Resistance to effects from the external environment
    • Dimensions and interchangeability
    • Pack openability and product removal
    • External decorative appearance and needs for shelf display
    • Environmental impact of the container throughout its life
    • All at the right price
  • Additional performance requirements for containers with special duties
    • Processed food cans
    • Drinks cans
    • Containers for transport of dangerous goods
    • Aerosol containers
    • Foil trays
    • Closures for glass, plastic containers and metal bottles
  • Service required by the canmaker and the upstream material suppliers
    • Commodity market
    • Custom market

Light metal package developments

  • Drivers
  • Influence of company size
  • Role of retailers and consumer organisations
  • Role of research organisations
  • Role of materials and machinery suppliers
  • Lessons based on practical experiences

Materials of construction

  • Steel for packaging
    • Steel making, hot and cold rolling
    • Mechanical properties
    • Coil thickness control/centre fullness
    • Surface finish (roughness)
    • Metallic coatings
    • Surface passivation
    • Surface oiling
    • Supply of metal
  • Aluminium for packaging
    • Aluminium making, hot and cold rolling
    • Mechanical properties
    • Surface pre-treatment
    • Surface oiling
    • Supply of metal

Manufacturing i: food, beer and beverage, aerosol containers and flexible metal tubes

  • Coil cutting into sheets
  • Three-piece containers (body forming)
    • Soldered side seam (tinplate only)
    • Welded side seam (tinplate and tin free steel)
  • Two-piece containers (body forming) (steel and aluminium)
    • Two-piece single drawn containers
    • Two-piece multiple drawn containers (draw/redraw, drd, dtr)
    • Two-piece drawn and wall iron containers (dwi, d&i)
    • Impact extruded containers and flexible metal tubes (aluminium only)
    • Sheet feeding options and multiple tool operations for increased output
  • Body finishing processes for two and three-piece cans (excluding protecting and decorating)
    • Washing (dwi and impact extruded cans only) and storage of bright dwi cans
    • Necking (including waxing)
    • Flanging: cylindrical and flat
    • Beading of body wall (food cans only)
    • Curling (flanges of heat sealed containers)
    • Embossing/debossing/shaping
    • Base reforming of two-piece dwi beer and beverage cans
    • Mechanical seaming of ends onto can bodies
    • Online testing
  • Construction and performance of cans for specific end markets
    • Food cans (two and three-piece) Food containers (tapered shallow drawn trays)
    • Beer and beverage cans
    • Aerosol cans
    • Bottle shaped cans for food and beer and beverages

Manufacturing ii: general line containers and lids

  • Performance general line containers
    • Round cylindrical containers
    • Round conical containers (tapered pails)
    • Drums
    • Non-round containers (square/ rectangular)
    • Performance containers for special uses
  • Non-performance general line containers
    • Two-piece drawn general line containers
    • Made-up general line containers
    • Lids for non-performance general line containers

Manufacturing iii: ends and closures

  • Ends fitted to metal containers
  • Plain ends
    • Easy open ends for drinks and food cans
    • Heat seal peelable lids and the heat sealing process
    • Peelable membrane sealed to a plain metal end
  • Closures for fitting to metal, glass/plastic containers for high duty applications
    • Roll-on pilfer-proof aluminium closures for fitting to pre-threaded metal, glass/ plastic bottles containing liquids
    • Composite screw-on closures (aluminium/plastic) for liquid packing in glass
    • Crown cork closure
    • Twist-off steel closures for fitting to pre-threaded glass jars containing food products
    • Press-on twist-off steel closures for glass jars containing food products
    • Maxicrown closure

Protecting and decorating metal

  • The need for internal and external coatings on metal
  • Coating material types in common use
    • Liquid coatings Powder coatings
    • Polymer films (laminated) and extrusion coatings
    • Resin types
    • Printing on metal
    • Distortion printing
    • Generation of colours - multi-colour process sets
    • Colour comparison and standards
    • Printing inks and pigments
  • Flat sheet coating and printing, application and curing systems
    • Coating application to flat sheets
    • Print application to flat sheets 135
    • Curing of inks and coatings on flat
    • Sheets 138
  • Cylindrical can coating and printing, application and curing systems
    • Application of coatings to the inside of cylindrical containers
    • Application of coatings and print to the outside of cylindrical containers
    • Thermal curing ovens for cylindrical cans
  • Coil coating, laminating, printing and application of extrusion coatings
    • Coil coating
    • Coil film lamination
    • Coil printing
    • Application of extruded coatings to coil
  • Electro-coating
  • Post manufacture decoration

Packing, storage and transport of finished packages

  • Pallets and palletisation methods
  • Packing in boxes, baskets or bulk plastic containers
  • Paper wrapping systems
  • Barcoding and traceability systems
  • Warehousing and surface transport

Quality assurance methods

  • Industry standards, interchangeability
  • Statistical control methods
  • Off-line - incoming raw materials, monitoring and recording
  • On-line raw material/product testing and monitoring
    • Metal supply to process
    • Metal coating/decoration
    • Container/closure construction
  • Off-line product testing, monitoring and attribute checking
    • Measurement of dimensions (including volume capacity)
    • Measurement of physical performance
    • Measurement of coatings and their performance
    • Measurement of print accuracy
    • Attribute defects
    • Pack testing of filled containers

Economics of can making processes

  • Capital costs
  • Manufacturing costs
  • Calculation of metal usage
    • Volume capacity
    • Blank dimensions
    • Standard nomenclature for area measurement
    • Use of coil or sheet?
    • Layout of metal blanks on coil/sheet/ strips, geometric wastage
  • Selecting the most appropriate forming process
    • What needs to be known about a container?
    • What can the various container making processes provide?
    • The effect of starting thickness on metal cost

Can size selection: standard can sizes and capacities

  • The influence of standardisation systems
  • Origins of present day size ranges
    • Standard sizes of food and drink cans (and nomenclature systems)
    • Standard sizes for aerosol cans
    • Sizes for general line cans
    • Standard diameters for metal closures for glass/ plastic containers

Environmental, legislative and health and safety issues

  • Environmental and sustainability issues relating to the materials used in the manufacture of metal packaging
    • Sustainability: the infinite recycling loop of metal for packaging
    • Recycling of process waste, finished product and post-consumer waste
  • Manufacturing processes
    • Emissions to air
    • Water-borne effluents
    • Hazardous solid waste
    • Noise emissions
    • Safety of operating personnel
  • Safety of the metal packaging product for the consumer

Hygiene and food contact issues

  • The importance of hygiene controls in package manufacturing
  • Organic coating materials and metals in contact with food

Threats to and opportunities for the light metal packaging industry

  • Threats from the marketplace
  • Threats from legislators
  • Opportunities for metal packaging
  • Technical developments in the industry


Tables and Figures

List of tables

  • Matrix of markets and common can construction methods
  • Major process developments which have affected can and end making
  • Surface finishes on tin mill products
  • Comparison of metal area used for rectangular blanks
  • Comparison of metal area used for circular blanks (simple layout)
  • Comparison of metal area used for circular blanks (close packed layout)
  • Characteristics of the most common canmaking processes

List of figures

  • Steel: ingot casting
  • Steel: continuous slab casting
  • Coil shear line
  • Solder application bath
  • Three-piece can body forming and welding
  • Soudronic welding system
  • Two-piece can: single draw, single action press
  • Two-piece can: single draw, double action press
  • Two-piece can - single draw - double action press
  • Grain direction and earing
  • Redraw can forming and flange trimming in double acting redraw press
  • Draw and wall ironing operation sequence
  • Wall ironing detail
  • Aluminium impact extrusion of a rigid container
  • Aluminium impact extrusion of a flexible tube
  • Stagger feed system for sheets
  • Typical neck profiles
  • Can flanging - die and spin methods
  • Shallow tray - die curl flange
  • Can end seaming
  • Typical processed food cans
  • Tapered shallow drawn tray
  • Typical beer and beverage cans
  • Typical aerosol cans
  • Typical bottle cans
  • General line performance round can with lids
  • General line performance round tapered can body with three typical lids
  • General line performance irregular cans with typical lids and handles
  • Pouring apertures in general line performance cans
  • Lever lid with diaphragm seal
  • General line non-performance can made-up body with seamed on base
  • Forming and lock seaming general line made up container
  • General line non-performance cans typical lid systems
  • Plain end forming
  • Plain food can end: forming and curling
  • End lining compound application
  • Easy-open ends
  • Easy-open ends for drinks cans
  • Easy-open end rivetting tab to body
  • Heat seal lid system
  • Peelable diaphragm end
  • Roll-on pilfer-proof closure
  • Composite closure
  • Crown cork closure
  • Twist-off closure with vacuum button
  • Press twist closure
  • Maxicrown closure
  • Sheet roller coater
  • Offset litho sheet printing
  • Multi colour printer with ink curing system
  • Ultraviolet curing system for sheets
  • Wicket oven for curing sheets
  • Thermal curing oven time/ temperature profile
  • Three-piece welded can side stripe and cure
  • Cylindrical can decorating machine
  • Pin chain curing oven
  • Coil coating on both sides of metal
  • Coil coater layout
  • Compression pack
  • Paper wrapped can ends
  • Three-piece can: air testing principles
  • Two-piece can: light testing principles
  • Exploded view of shallow tray for volume calculation
  • Welded three-piece food can body
  • Multiple draw two-piece can
  • Drawn and wall ironed two-piece can
  • Rectangular blanks - sheared/slit from sheet
  • Cutting progression: coil to strip
  • Rectangular blanks punched from coil/sheet/strip
  • Circular blanks: simple and close pack layouts
  • Close pack sheet layouts - straight/scroll cut
  • Circular blank: simple layout
  • Circular blank: close pack layout - coil/scroll cut sheet and strip
  • European tinplate prices in euros SR/DR

Author Biography

Bev Page graduated in Mechanical Sciences at the University of Cambridge in 1956 and became a Chartered Mechanical Engineer in 1961.

In 1973 he was appointed General Manager of the National Can Corporation Skelmersdale (UK) factory which, in 1974, made the first commercial aluminium two-piece drawn and wall ironed (DWI) beverage cans in Europe. Following this, he set up factories for NCC in Germany, Italy and the UK to make two-piece DWI beer and beverage cans and in the Republic of Ireland to make easy-open ends.

In 1979 he joined Mardon Illingworth Ltd (now Impress Sutton) which in 1978 had made the first two-piece tinplate DWI food cans outside the USA. He was made Operations Director in 1981. He later became Development Director and retired in 1998 to become an independent packaging consultant.

He was Chairman of the (UK) Metal Packaging Manufacturers' Association from 1993 - 1995.